In certain provinces, masks and face coverings have now or will soon become mandatory in certain indoor establishments accessible to the public, including in, or in parts of, Ontario, Quebec, Alberta and British Columbia. Recently, in Atlantic Canada, Nova Scotia also announced that masks will be required as of July 31 in enclosed public places.
In the federal sphere, the Labour Program has not imposed mandatory face covering requirements in establishments operated by federally regulated employers and service providers. However, current public health guidance informs that face coverings can be an effective form of protection from the spread of COVID-19, particularly where physical distancing of two metres cannot be maintained.
What are the federal sector’s obligations when it comes to face coverings?
Matters of health are generally regulated by the provincial jurisdiction, and the public health authority in each province and territory is currently managing the health measures implemented as a result of COVID-19.
The federal Labour Program has advised that all federally regulated employers are expected to comply with provincial health and emergency legislation. For example, in Toronto and Ottawa, face coverings have been made mandatory by way of a municipal by-law. In Quebec, similar requirements have been enacted under the Public Health Act. And in Western Canada, some municipalities have now or will soon pass by-laws requiring face coverings. As mentioned above, such requirements will also soon be in force in parts of Atlantic Canada. For their part, federal employers, where applicable, are required to follow the rules of their jurisdiction.
Under the Canada Labour Code
The Labour Program has released a guide containing a number of resources for federally regulated employers to help them understand their obligations under the Canada Labour Code (CLC) in light of COVID-19. Part II of the CLC requires employers to protect the health and safety of their employees. Employers must assess workplace hazards like those related to COVID-19 and implement necessary and reasonable preventative and risk mitigation measures. These can include providing personal protective equipment and updating hazard prevention programs to reflect measures taken in response to COVID-19.
Industry-specific federal guidance
In addition, it should be noted that certain federally regulated industries have specific COVID-19 requirements, such as the airline and the rail industries. In both examples, Transport Canada is monitoring the COVID-19 situation and has issued transportation-related measures and guidance, as follows:
- Aviation Industry: Transport Canada has issued aviation guidance, which can be found here. Key points in this regard include:
- Air operators are required to wear a face covering, as long as wearing one is not a safety hazard.
- Air operators are required to monitor and enforce compliance with the aviation industry guidelines on passenger face coverings.
- Airlines are responsible for notifying passengers when they purchase their ticket that face coverings are required when physical distancing is not possible.
- Rail Industry: Transport Canada has issued guidance for the rail industry, which can be found here and include:
- Ensure rail workers have face coverings and wear them on a risk-based approach.
- Notify passengers at time of ticket purchase that they may be subject to a health check and to wear a face covering.
- Prior to passengers boarding the train, have an employee read an announcement about how passengers exhibiting COVID-19 symptoms should not board the train and that Transport Canada has requested all passengers to wear a face covering.
A full list of transportation-related guidance can be found here.
A full list of federal industry-specific guidelines can be found here.
Covid-19 Tracking App
The government of Canada also recently unveiled its new Covid-19 tracking application, Covid Alert. Covid Alert will let people know of possible exposures, in an effort to help prevent the spread of Covid-19. Currently, only people in Ontario can use the Covid Alert to report a diagnosis, but the government is recommending people in all jurisdictions download the application to ensure they are notified if anyone near them has been diagnosed.
The Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada reviewed Covid Alert and is satisfied that the application meets all the federal, provincial and territorial privacy principles. The Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada believes Covid Alert is likely to be effective in reducing the spread of Covid-19 and says that Canadians using the application can do so knowing it includes significant privacy protections.
Face Coverings in Schools
The Government of Canada has released updated guidance for elementary and high schools in Canada. This guidance is based on a set of recommendations and is to be used to inform specific practices in each jurisdiction. Some of the recommendations for schools are:
- To prohibit individuals who have symptoms or exposure to COVID-19 from entering school premises;
- To promote and facilitate personal preventive practices like proper hand washing schedules and avoiding touching of the face;
- To promote physical distancing as much as possible by establishing a 2 meter distance between children, staff and volunteers, to restrict the flow of people in hallways and to postpone extracurricular events;
- To create physical barriers between children, staff and volunteers like Plexiglas windows or cubicles where appropriate; and
- To increase ventilation.
A full list of recommendations for schools can be found here.
The Government of Canada has also recommended that children over 10 years old wear a non-medical mask in school, depending on the circumstances of the jurisdiction. Schools in all provinces should consider implementing policies that recommend non-medical masks based on grade level and factors such as: local epidemiology of Covid-19, the characteristics of the setting, the characteristics of the individuals (age, maturity, physical ability, comprehension), the nature of the activities, risk tolerance and the potential of the setting to implement risk mitigation measures.
Canada Releases Plan for Safe Air Travel
The Ministry of Transport announced a safe air travel plan called Canada’s Flight Plan for Navigating COVID-19. The plan applies to all aspects of air travel in Canada. Specific changes include: travel restrictions; mandatory use of face masks for passengers and air crew; mandatory health checks by air carriers prior to passenger boarding; temperature screening at busy Canadian airports and at points of origin for all incoming flights to Canada; restricted services and passenger movement during flights; and enhanced cleaning protocols.
To learn more about what the Ministry of Transport is doing for safe air travel during COVID-19, click here.
Take-aways for employers
Where in force, face covering requirements in Canada have been introduced to mitigate the spread of the now infamous COVID-19 pandemic. Absent any specific requirement from federal regulators to cover up, federal employers should be following and, where appropriate, directing their employees to follow all relevant and applicable emergency and health and safety measures in their region.
Indeed, federal employers have important occupational health and safety obligations towards their employees and complying with provincial or local mask and face covering requirements likely fall within that purview.
Alas, federally regulated or not, the takeaway point seems clear: when in doubt, cover up!
The author would like to thank Elizabeth Kazakov & Emma Hamer, summer students, for their assistance in preparing this piece.