Topic: Europe

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The dangerous combination of the right to disconnect and the concept of on call-duty

French law implemented in 2017 the “right to disconnect” from digital tools, requiring employers to limit employees’ use of digital tools outside of office hours. The purpose of this legislation is to protect the employees’ work-life balance and their right to rest periods. The law did not provide details of how employers should implement the … Continue reading

Stärkere Kontrollen bei Dienstreisen erwartet: Erfordernis von A1-Bescheinigungen

Mit einer Entscheidung vom 6. September 2018 stärkte der EuGH (C-527/16) die Bedeutung der sozialversicherungsrechtlichen A1-Bescheinigung. Zur Vermeidung doppelter Sozialversicherungsbeiträge in zwei verschiedenen EU-Staaten bescheinigt dieses Entsendeformular, welches Sozialsystem für einen Versicherten zuständig ist. Die A1-Bescheinigung ist selbst bei sehr kurzen Dienstreisen ins Ausland erforderlich und zwar sowohl für Arbeitnehmer als auch für Selbstständige. Der … Continue reading

Can a dismissal letter be signed by an individual belonging to a holding entity?

Dismissal procedures are highly regulated in France including with respect to the identity of the individual who is entitled to conduct the procedure and sign the dismissal letter; such person must -by definition- be the “employer” .  However, some flexibility has been introduced over the years by French case law, and a recent decision of … Continue reading

Corporate Governance Reform – new disclosure requirements

Following on from it proposals for reform, which we reported on at the end of last year (Corporate Governance Proposals), the UK Government has now published draft regulations, (the draft Companies (Miscellaneous Reporting) Regulations 2018). The Draft Regulations will implement some of the proposals, in particular in relation to holding larger companies to account for … Continue reading

Legal update: Minimum protection for Gig Economy workers in Italy and in the international context

The need to update existing labour laws in light of the rapid changes introduced by the digital economy is one of principal issues under the “new ways of working” debate and has made the  headlines in many Italian papers, including the leading daily, Il Sole24Ore.  We need to use the legal tools that are available … Continue reading

Regulation applicable to dress codes in the workplace in France

An individual freedom… Generally speaking, employees are free to choose how they wish to dress, including in the workplace. Such freedom is protected by the rules of the French labor code, which provide that an employer may not restrict an employee’s work clothing without proper justification based on the nature of the tasks to be … Continue reading

Overtime and holiday pay – non-guaranteed and voluntary overtime

The Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) in the UK has recently considered whether voluntary as well as non-guaranteed overtime should be taken into account in calculating the amount of holiday pay. The question arose both under the terms and conditions of the claimants’ employment, but also pursuant to the EU Working Time Directive (No.2003/88) (WTD). The … Continue reading

Tort liability: other grounds for bringing actions against a parent company in French employment litigation

It is a fact of life in French employer-employee relations that employees have no hesitation in bringing actions against their employer, in particular following termination of an employment, and that litigation is therefore not just a virtual weapon. Not only do employees sue their employer but, where the employer is a part of a group … Continue reading

Le temps de trajet des salariés itinérants n’est (définitivement) pas du temps de travail effectif

La détermination du temps de travail effectif des salariés est un sujet complexe, et l’enjeu est considérable pour les salariés dans la mesure où ce temps de travail effectif a un impact direct sur leur rémunération. C’est encore plus vrai pour les salariés itinérants, dont les fonctions impliquent des temps de trajet importants (notamment entre … Continue reading

“High heels and workplace dress codes” – the UK Government Equalities Office publishes guidance

In December 2015, an agency worker arrived to work as a receptionist and was sent home without pay for failure to wear high heels in accordance with the agency’s dress code. The story attracted widespread media attention, and led to an enquiry by a House of Commons Committee whose report was published in January 2017. … Continue reading

Appointing Contractors through a personal service company – employment and tax implications

Following on from the recent cases on employment status there has been much discussion regarding how individuals should be appointed. Whilst some commentary has suggested that companies should consider appointing their contractors through Personal Service Companies (PSC’s), is this an ideal solution? Currently, where a private sector employer appoints a contractor who operates through a … Continue reading

Corporate Governance Reform – new disclosure requirements

Following on from it proposals for reform, which we reported on at the end of last year (Corporate Governance Proposals), the UK Government has now published draft regulations, (the draft Companies (Miscellaneous Reporting) Regulations 2018) . The draft regulations will implement some of the proposals, in particular in relation to holding larger companies to account … Continue reading

UK Supreme Court holds that plumber engaged by Pimlico Plumbers was a “worker” and not a self-employed contractor

The Supreme Court has dismissed the latest appeal by Pimlico Plumbers Ltd (the Company) against the employment tribunal’s decision that one of its plumbers, Mr Smith, was a “worker” under the provisions of the Employment Rights Act 1996 (ERA) and the Working Time Regulations 1998 (WTR).   The Supreme Court held that, on the facts of … Continue reading

BVerfG verwirft Drei-Jahres-Frist für sachgrundlose Befristungen nach Vorbeschäftigung

Einmal ist keineswegs kein Mal!  Mit Beschluss vom 6. Juni 2018  (Az.: 1 BvL 7/14 und 1 BvR 1375/14), veröffentlicht am 13. Juni 2018, verwarf das BVerfG die bisherige Rechtsprechung des Bundesarbeitsgerichts (BAG) zu sachgrundlosen Befristungen und bestätigt die Verfassungsmässigkeit deren Beschränkung durch das Teilzeit- und Befristungsgesetz (TzBfG). Da rund 9% aller Arbeitsverhältnisse in Deutschland … Continue reading

Will employers soon be under an obligation to require their employees to take holiday?

Although pursuant to Sec. 7 para. 1 of the German Federal Leave Act (Bundesurlaubsgesetz) it is the employer‘s obligation to grant holidays, in practice this usually occurs only after the individual employee’s formal request for holiday leave. In the near future, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) must decide whether or not employers can – … Continue reading

RGPD : nouveau facteur de risque en droit social?

Le règlement général sur la protection des données (« RGPD ») est entré en vigueur le 25 mai 2018. Il modifie la législation antérieure sur le traitement des données personnelles en supprimant notamment le principe de déclaration préalable à la CNIL. Cette déclaration est remplacée par une obligation pour l’entreprise de démontrer la conformité de ses systèmes … Continue reading

Can a claim for compensation for unused holidays be inherited following an employee’s death during employment?

Pursuant to Sec. 7 para. 4 of the German Federal Leave Act (Bundesurlaubsgesetz) payment in lieu of accrued but untaken holiday is only possible if it cannot be taken due to the termination of the employment. On termination of the employment, the holiday entitlement automatically transforms into an entitlement to compensation. In the event of … Continue reading

First-ever ‘Riders’ Statute’ signed in Bologna, giving food delivery company riders a set of minimum standards of protection

On 31 May 2018, at the City Hall of Bologna (the fourth most populous city in northern Italy), the city’s mayor, representatives of Italy’s three main workers unions (CGIL, CISL and UIL), and two food delivery companies active in Bologna (Sgnam and Mymenu) met and signed the “Paper of fundamental rights of the digital worker … Continue reading

Issues of employment status: pseudo self-employment and hidden personnel leasing in Germany

German labour law follows the “all or nothing” principle: Labour law regulations presume an existing employment relationship between employer and employee. If no such relationship exists, protective labour law regulations cannot be applied (with a few exceptions e.g. in the case of managing directors of a “GmbH” (limited company)). Assessing whether an employment relationship exists … Continue reading

Issues of employment status in France

France makes a distinction between those individuals with an employment status and independent workers. Under French employment law, an employee is defined as an individual who works pursuant to an employment contract (and under the subordination of the employing entity) and receives a salary in return for his or her services. Unlike an employee, a consultant remains … Continue reading

Employees’ freedom of speech on the Internet is not without boundaries

Books, hotels, restaurants, products: you can find reviews and rating websites for just about everything on the internet – even employers. However, employees posting internet reviews of their employer should be careful and measured in what they say, or risk being subjected to disciplinary measures  – or even dismissal – if they abuse their freedom … Continue reading
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