Tag archives: working hours

France implements new social measures to face the pandemic

The first COVID-19 cases appeared in France a few weeks ago and French people have been in lockdown since March 17. The repercussions of this pandemic are significant, and the Government has been authorized, by Emergency Act No. 2020-290 of 23 March 2020, to take measures through ordinances (which means that no debate is required before Parliament, and the ordinances are voted directly by the Council of Ministers).

Several ordinances on employment-related matters were adopted by the Council of Ministers on 27 March 2020, and published. A decree was also issued to extend the rules of reduction in activity (short-time … Continue Reading

La France face à la pandémie : les mesures sociales s’organisent

Le COVID-19 a fait son apparition en France il y a quelques semaines déjà et les Français sont confinés depuis le 17 mars dernier. Les répercussions de cette pandémie sont importantes, et le Gouvernement a été autorisé, par la loi n° 2020-290 du 23 mars 2020 d’urgence pour faire face à l’épidémie de covid-19, à prendre des mesures par voie d’ordonnance.

Plusieurs ordonnances ont été adoptées en Conseil des ministres le 27 mars 2020, et publiées au Journal Officiel, en matière sociale. Un décret est venu élargir les règles de l’activité partielle. De nouvelles ordonnances sont par ailleurs venues compléter … Continue Reading

France combats the pandemic

Since January 2020, Coronavirus COVID-19 has spread rapidly around the world, causing massive disruption to business and everyday life as well as thousands of deaths.

The French Government has reacted in several stages. After issuing recommendations for barrier measures, it decided to close schools and more recently, it ordered the general confinement of French people and the closure of many establishments deemed non-essential in order to protect public health. The Government’s latest recommendations for employers can be found here (available in French only).

Consequently, for companies operating in France, three types of employees can be distinguished (excluding sick employees, who … Continue Reading

What are an employer’s chances of overcoming an employee’s claim for overtime in France ?

The basic working time arrangement in France is 35 hours per week, and although there are a number of alternative working time arrangements potentially available, this is still the one that applies to the majority of French employees. However, this is not a maximum working week – employees working beyond that amount are entitled to overtime.

Employers must be able to prove the actual number of hours worked by their employees and must therefore ensure such hours are properly recorded. In the absence of proper records, the employer may have difficulties in overcoming a claim for overtime payments made by … Continue Reading

Control or trust: Legal claim to home office?

Digitization and  technological advances are accelerating the flexibility of working conditions leading to a changed understanding of leadership. A key topic of debate is the “home office” which is currently used by approximately 12 per cent of employees in Germany for all or part of their working time. On this topic, the German government is currently considering a bill requiring companies to comply with a worker’s desire to work from home – based on their assessment that 40 per cent of all employees could realistically work from home and that the majority of employees would be interested in doing so.… Continue Reading

Launch of the Federal Employment Guide for Employers: September 1 Amendments to Part III of the Canada Labour Code

A suite of changes to Part III of the Canada Labour Code (the Code) are coming into force on September 1, 2019, that will confer new rights to employees. For many federally regulated employers, these amendments, brought under Bills C-86 and C-63, will have a significant impact on their workplaces and businesses.

To assist employers prepare for and navigate these new legislative changes and additions, the employment and labour group at Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP has created the “Federal Employment and Labour Guide”. The guide includes information and takeaways for employers on the following:

  • Overtime: Employees now have
Continue Reading

Lancement du Guide d’information en matière de droit de l’emploi et du travail fédéral: Modifications à la partie III du Code canadien du travail qui entreront en vigueur le 1er septembre 2019

Une série de nouvelles modifications apportées à la partie III du Code canadien du travail (Code), qui entreront en vigueur le 1er septembre 2019, conféreront de nouveaux droits aux employés. Ces modifications, adoptées en vertu des projets de loi C-86 et C-63, auront des répercussions importantes sur le milieu de travail et l’entreprise de nombreux employeurs régis par les lois fédérales.

Afin d’aider les employeurs à se préparer à ces modifications et ajouts à la loi et à se familiariser avec ceux-ci, le groupe Droit de l’emploi et du travail de Norton Rose Fulbright Canada … Continue Reading

Singapore: “Watershed” Amendments to Employment Legislation

Singapore’s employment laws are set to undergo watershed changes come April 2019. In summary, a greater number of employees – in particular, professionals, managers and executives (“PMEs”) – will soon be able to avail themselves of the statutory protections contained in Singapore’s Employment Act, the key employment legislation in Singapore.

The single most significant legislative change is the removal of the monthly salary cap of SGD 4,500 in respect of PMEs. Presently, only PMEs below this salary cap have the benefit of the provisions in the Employment Act relating to minimum periods of notice, paid public holiday and … Continue Reading

National Minimum Wage – “On Call”, “Sleep In” employees

The Court of Appeal has held that carers who carry out overnight “sleep-in” shifts are not entitled to be paid the National Minimum Wage (NMW) for the full duration of the shift, only when they are actually performing work.

The UK National Minimum Wage Act 1998 creates the right for workers in the UK to be paid an hourly rate of remuneration for work carried out. The National Minimum Wage Regulations 2015 (the 2015 Regulations) (and its predecessor the National Minimum Wage Regulations 1999 (the 1999 Regulations ))  contain complex provisions relating to how employers should calculate the number of … Continue Reading

Le temps de trajet des salariés itinérants n’est (définitivement) pas du temps de travail effectif

La détermination du temps de travail effectif des salariés est un sujet complexe, et l’enjeu est considérable pour les salariés dans la mesure où ce temps de travail effectif a un impact direct sur leur rémunération.

C’est encore plus vrai pour les salariés itinérants, dont les fonctions impliquent des temps de trajet importants (notamment entre leur domicile et le lieu d’implantation des clients de l’entreprise pour laquelle ils travaillent, qu’il s’agisse du premier client visité dans la journée ou le dernier client).

Comment doivent être pris en compte ces temps de trajet ? Sont-ils constitutifs d’un temps de travail effectif … Continue Reading

What rights do workers have to rest breaks in Germany?

This post was also contributed by Sebastian Kutzner, Trainee, Norton Rose Fulbright LLP (Munich).

Due to increasing demands for a work life balance, uncertainty as to employees’ rights to rest periods, in particular, is widespread. German law distinguishes between two types of rest periods:

  • Rest breaks (to be granted during working time); and
  • Resting time (the period between two working days)

Subject to special rules for different industries both are regulated by the German Working Time Act (Arbeitszeitgesetz). During both periods employees cannot be required to work but must be free to use this time for their own … Continue Reading

¿What rights do workers have to rest breaks?

Article 167 of the Labor Colombian Code, establishes that “working hours during a work day, must be distributed in two sections, with at least one break or intermediate period, that rationally suit the nature of the work and the employee’s needs. Such resting time is not part of the working day”.

In this sense, Colombian labor law divides the working day of all employees in two sections, depending on their particular conditions (such as: position, duties, working schedule, kind of work, among others), with the purpose to grant them a minimum rest period during their working hours. As a general … Continue Reading

DOL to appeal injunction against new overtime regulations

Despite the fact that the U.S. Department of Labor’s new overtime regulations were set to go into effect on December 1st, the validity of the regulations remains unsettled. We previously reported that on November 22nd, Judge Amos Mazzant of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas granted a nationwide injunction precluding the Department of Labor from implementing and enforcing the regulations on November 22nd in Nevada v. U.S. Department of Labor.  On December 1st, the very same day that the regulations were supposed to go into effect, the Department of Labor announced that it would … Continue Reading

What rights and protections are there for part-time workers?

This post was also contributed by Dimitri Schaff, Trainee, Norton Rose Fulbright LLP (Munich).

Currently, about one quarter of all employment relationships in Germany are based on part-time models, the proportion of part-time to full-time employees having increased by about 12 per cent since 2001. Furthermore, as a result of the implementation of the EU Part-time Workers Directive 97/81/EC into German law in 2001, an enforceable right for current full-time employees to switch to part-time work exists in Germany. Besides this, employees with children (under the age of eight) may additionally claim the right to part-time parental leave.

Although employers … Continue Reading

Overtime overhaul – small businesses want more time to prepare

With just about 90 days to go before the U.S. Department of Labor’s final rule dramatically updating overtime regulations is scheduled to go into effect, small business owners have petitioned the DOL’s Wage and Hour Division seeking more time to prepare for and implement changes to the way they operate their businesses so that they can remain compliant with wage laws. In a parallel move, on September 28, 2016, the U.S. House of Representatives also voted in favor of the Regulatory Relief for Small Businesses, Schools and Nonprofits Act, which would delay implementation of the DOL’s final overtime rule … Continue Reading

What rights and protections are there for workers on zero hours contracts in Germany?

Unlike in the U.K. and other EU member states, zero hours contracts are not (yet) common practice in Germany. To date, other arrangements aimed at achieving “flexible working” such as fixed-term or part-time contracts, secondment of personnel and – more recently – contracts to provide services have been more widespread. However, as German case law and legislation are gradually restricting the flexibility once offered by these arrangements, zero hours contracts are increasingly being used in Germany (in particular with regard to care workers, teachers, and paramedics).

Typical provisions which can be found in employment contracts read for example:

“The working Continue Reading

Fair pay, safe workplaces, and federal contractors telling it like it is

On August 24, 2016, the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) and the Federal Acquisition Regulatory (FAR) Counsel issued a final rule to implement President Obama’s Executive Order 13673, entitled “Fair Pay and Safe Workplaces,” first announced by the President over two years ago on July 31, 2014.

According to the Federal Acquisition Institute, the purpose of E.O. 13673 is “to help [federal] contractors come into compliance with labor laws – not to exclude contractors.” The final rule implementing the order requires both current and prospective federal contractors and subcontractors to disclose labor law violations and establishes how federal … Continue Reading

(Night-)Time is Money

Even though, unarguably, few employees would give up a good night’s sleep in order to work night shifts, operational necessity often dictates otherwise. Certain businesses can only remain competitive and survive in the market if they require their employees to work during night-time. Parcel services, bakeries and hospitals are just a few examples of businesses where working night shifts seems to be an absolute necessity.
Under German law, employees may be required to work during night hours (defined by law as from 11 p.m. to 6 a.m.), provided that a works council (if any) has been involved and any collective … Continue Reading

Fatter paychecks for employees, tough decisions for employers

On June 30, 2015, the U.S. Department of Labor issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) that will significantly increase the number of employees entitled to receive overtime pay for work in excess of 40 hours during a regular workweek. Once implemented, the new rule is estimated to affect at least 5 million full-time employees by raising the minimum salary required to qualify for the Fair Labor Standards Act’s “white collar” exemptions from $23,600 to $50,440 per year.

The proposed rule follows a directive from President Obama in March of 2014 to Labor Secretary Thomas Perez that the Department of … Continue Reading

Working time- Are there any restrictions on an employee´s working week?

According to Article 158 of the Colombian Labor Code, the working shift may be agreed by the employer and the employee. In absence of such agreement, the working shift will be the maximum determined by law.

 

The maximum working schedule is of eight daily hours and forty-eight (48) weekly hours. The daytime working shift goes from 6:00 a.m. to 10.00 p.m. Work done between 10:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. is considered night work and has a 35% surcharge.

 

The following employees are excluded from the daily working shift hours (i) executive, management or trust employees; and (ii) security … Continue Reading

Working time – are there any restrictions on an employee’s working week in Germany?

Under the German Act on Working Time (Arbeitszeitgesetz), an employee’s working time is limited to a maximum of eight hours per working day and 48-hours per week. This 48 hours threshold applies to all employees working a five or six day week. However, most employees in Germany work five days and 40 hours per week at the most.

Under German law, an increase to up to ten hours per day is permissible without a special reason being necessary if the average of eight hours per day is not exceeded over a six-month reference period. However, as European … Continue Reading

Working time in the UK – are there any restrictions on an employee’s working week?

The Working Time Regulations 1998 (the Regulations) implemented the requirements of the 1993 EC Working Time Directive. Before the Regulations came into force, the hours of work undertaken by employees were largely unregulated in the UK. For the first time, the Regulations introduced restrictions on the number of hours worked by employees and workers together with a right to rest breaks and holidays. This post covers only the restrictions on the maximum working week.

Who is covered by the Regulations?

The Regulations apply to “workers”. A worker is defined as an individual who works under either a contract of employment … Continue Reading

Flexible Working Act: Stronger position for employees who want to work from home

On 14 April 2015, the Dutch Senate has accepted the Flexible Working Act, allowing employees of companies in the Netherlands more flexibility in respect of working hours and working from home. With effect from 1 January 2016, employees will be able to ask not only for changes to the number of hours they work, but also changes to the times they are required to work and their place of work.

An employer has to agree with a request to change the number of working hours, unless there are substantial business reasons for not doing so. Case law shows that business … Continue Reading

Working Hours and Annual Leave in China

Working Hours

PRC law recognises three categories of working hour systems: (i) the Standard Working Hour System; (ii) the Flexible Working Hour System; and (iii) the Comprehensive Working Hour System.  Each system varies in its applicability to employment positions and industries within the PRC.

The Standard Working Hour System provides that an employee may work no more than 8 hours per day and, as such, working hours are capped at 40 hours per week. Any work that exceeds the maximum limit of 8 hours per day, or 40 hours per week, is considered overtime. In contrast, the Flexible Working Hour … Continue Reading

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